以下為資訊科技業界常見的詞彙解釋:


Android – Open-source mobile phone platform based on the Linux OS, launched in November 2007 by the Open Handset Alliance. The first commercial phone using the Android OS, the G1 (based on the HTC Dream handset), was launched in September 2008 by T-Mobile. The alliance is led by Google and includes operators and mobile phone and chipset vendors, such as HTC, Intel, LG, Motorola, Nvidia, Qualcomm, Samsung Electronics and T-Mobile. See also Open Handset Alliance (OHA).

ANSI (American National Standards Institute) – NSI coordinates the development and use of voluntary consensus standards in the U.S. and represents the needs and views of U.S. stakeholders in standardization global forums. ANSI is actively engaged in accrediting programs that assess conformance to standards.

Application program – Software programs in a system are either application programs or supervisory programs, also called system software. Application programs contain instructions that transfer control to the system software to perform input/output and other routine operations, working through the application programming interface (API).

App Store –  Apple's download service for iTunes mobile applications, developed using the iPhone software development kit (SDK) for the iPhone and iPod touch. Generically the term has come to refer to a variety of mobile application services, including Android Market, Ovi Store, Windows Marketplace for Mobile and BlackBerry App World.

AIoT- Rapid advancement in Artificial Intelligence is reforming almost every industry in the world. Internet of Things and Edge Computing became dominant in recent years. Let’s explore how the combination of Artificial Intelligence and Internet of Things is making a new branch of emerging technology called Artificial Intelligence of Things(AIoT). The application can range from smart home speakers to self driving cars.

Architecture – A microprocessor architecture is the specific combination of integrated circuit design and instructions that control how the microprocessor works.

ARM – ARM Holdings plc is a multinational intellectual property company headquartered in Cambridge, United Kingdom. ARM holds the licensing rights to one of the world’s most successful processor designs and is one of the fastest growing companies in the industry. ARM is market dominant in the field of processors for smartphones, and growing in other segments.

ARM Cortex – ARM Cortex is a processor family of energy-efficient, easy to use processors, designed to help developers deliver more features at a lower cost, increase connectivity, facilitate better code reuse and improve energy efficiency.

ASIC (application-specific integrated circuit) - A chip on which the pattern of connections has been set up exclusively for a specific function.

Baseband – Transmitting a signal in its original, unmodulated form. A baseband signal can be analog (e.g., originating from a telephone) or digital (e.g., originating from a computer).

Benchmark – The comparison between vendors’ performance and designated benchmark organizations or indexes. An index is a publicly available indicator for a factor that is associated with a pricing element.

BIOS (basic input/output system) – The part of an operating system that links the specific hardware devices to the software. It obtains the buffers required to send information from a program to the hardware/desktop receiving the information.

Big data – is a field that treats ways to analyze, systematically extract information from, or otherwise deal with data sets that are too large or complex to be dealt with by traditional data-processing application software. Data with many cases (rows) offer greater statistical power, while data with higher complexity may lead to a higher false discovery rate.

BOM (bill of materials) – A structured list of the raw materials, parts and assemblies that constitute a product to be manufactured, typically used as part of a manufacturing resource planning system.

Chip vendors – A chip vendor (also referred to as a semiconductor vendor or a silicon vendor) manufactures integrated circuits. IAR Systems is the hub of a powerful ecosystem of partners that include suppliers of real time operating systems (RTOS), middleware and all of the world's leading chip vendors.

Cloud computing – It’s the on-demand availability of computer system resources, especially data storage and computing power, without direct active management by the user. The term is generally used to describe data centers available to many users over the Internet.

Compiler – A compiler is a computer program (or set of programs) that transforms source code written in a programming language (that resembles English) into instructions that are used by the microprocessor.

Debug probe – An electronic tool that provides information about the state of the processor when the software application runs, used to locate problems and errors in the application that the developer has created.

Debugger – Software that helps the programmer  to locate problems and errors in the application he/she has created, by analyzing and showing what happens “under the surface” when the application runs, often by using a debug probe.

Development kit – A development kit (also called starter kit and evaluation kit) contains all the necessary hardware and software and allows the programmers to design, develop, integrate and test the applications they have created. IAR Systems provides completely integrated kits for development of embedded applications. Each kit contains a development/evaluation board, software development tools with sample projects and a hardware debug probe.

Development tools – The software that a programmer uses for creating computer programs. The most important of these are an Editor to write the source code in, a Compiler to transform the source code to something that the processor can use, a Linker that combines various smaller pieces of software to an application program, and a Debugger that is used for detecting problems with the program.

Digitalization trend – The increasing number of different digital products in the world. More and more products are digital and contain processors that enable mobility, remote control, energy-efficiency, metering etc.

Dynamic code analysis – It’s the method of analyzing an application right during its execution. ... The source code should be necessarily compiled into an executable file, i.e. you can't use this method to analyze a code containing compilation or build errors. Also called “Runtime”analysis.

Embedded system – An embedded system consists of one or more microprocessors with related circuits, including the software that is running on the system. Embedded systems control the operation of products like mobile phones, coffee machines, credit card readers, dish washers etc. The customers develop and market products operated by embedded computer systems. Embedded systems are becoming more and more common in products all over the world.

Functional safety – It’s a part of the overall safety of a system or piece of equipment that depends on automatic protection operating correctly in response to its inputs or failure in a predictable manner (fail-safe). The automatic protection system should be designed to properly handle likely human errors, hardware failures and operational/environmental stress.

GUI – The graphical user interface (GUI) is a form of user interface that allows users to interact with electronic devices through graphical icons and audio indicator such as primary notation, instead of text-based user interfaces, typed command labels or text navigation.

Integrated circuit (IC) – A usually rectangular small piece of silicon with tiny transistors, sometimes millions of them on a single IC.

IoT – The Internet of things (IoT) is a system of interrelated computing devices, mechanical and digital machines provided with unique identifiers (UIDs) and the ability to transfer data over a network without requiring human-to-human or human-to-computer interaction.

Microprocessor – A microprocessor is a single (or a very small number) of integrated circuits. The circuit combines the functions of a computer's central processing unit with memory storage for code and data.

Middleware – Software that provides common services and capabilities to applications outside of what's offered by the operating system. Data management, application services, messaging, authentication, and API management are all commonly handled by middleware.

RISC-V – It’s an open standard instruction set architecture (ISA) based on established reduced instruction set computer (RISC) principles. Unlike most other ISA designs, the RISC-V ISA is provided under open source licenses that do not require fees to use. A number of companies are offering or have announced RISC-V hardware, open source operating systems are available and the instruction set is supported in several popular software toolchains.

RTOS – An operating system (OS) is a set of programs that handles the computer hardware and provides a foundation for the application software. The operating system is the fundamental software in a computer system. A real-time operating system (RTOS) is specialized in handling input and output from the computer system fast and reliably, which is very important for embedded systems.

Static code analysis – is the analysis of computer software that is performed without actually executing programs, in contrast with dynamic analysis, which is analysis performed on programs while they are executing.

TrustZone – It offers an efficient, system-wide approach to security with hardware-enforced isolation built into the CPU. It provides the perfect starting point for establishing a device root of trust based on Platform Security Architecture (PSA) guidelines. The family of TrustZone technologies can be integrated into any Arm Cortex-A processor or processor based on the Armv7-A and Armv8-A architecture, and Cortex-M processors built on the Armv8-M architecture.

8, 16, 32-Bit – Microprocessor architectures vary in complexity and size. 8, 16, and 32-bit refer to how much code and data the microprocessor can process. Generally, the larger the architecture is, the more complex and powerful are the processors.